Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Sci Total Environ. 2013 Jan 1;442:10-9. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.013. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Exploring global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface water.

Author information

  • 1Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands. nynke.hofstra@wur.nl

Abstract

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. This paper presents the first model-based inventory with 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution of global Cryptosporidium emissions for the year 2000 from humans and animals to surface water. The model is based on nutrient distribution modelling, because the sources and transport of oocysts and nutrients to the surface water are comparable. Total emissions consist of point source emissions from wastewater and nonpoint source emissions by runoff of oocysts in manure from agricultural lands. Results indicate a global emission of 3 × 10(17) oocysts per year, with comparable contributions from point and nonpoint sources. Hot-spot areas for point sources are big cities in China, India and Latin America, while the area with the largest nonpoint source emissions is in China. Uncertainties in the model are large. Main areas for further study are (i) excretion rates of oocysts by humans and animals, (ii) emissions of humans not connected to sewage systems, and (iii) retention of oocysts to determine surface water pathogen concentrations rather than emissions. Our results are useful to health organisations to identify priority areas for further study and intervention.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID:
23178759
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk