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PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49444. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049444. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Case-only designs in pharmacoepidemiology: a systematic review.

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  • 1Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR-S 738; INSERM, UMR-S 738, Paris, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Case-only designs have been used since late 1980's. In these, as opposed to case-control or cohort studies for instance, only cases are required and are self-controlled, eliminating selection biases and confounding related to control subjects, and time-invariant characteristics. The objectives of this systematic review were to analyze how the two main case-only designs - case-crossover (CC) and self-controlled case series (SCCS) - have been applied and reported in pharmacoepidemiology literature, in terms of applicability assumptions and specificities of these designs.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

We systematically selected all reports in this field involving case-only designs from MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 15, 2010. Data were extracted using a standardized form. The analysis included 93 reports 50 (54%) of CC and 45 (48%) SCCS, 2 reports combined both designs. In 12 (24%) CC and 18 (40%) SCCS articles, all applicable validity assumptions of the designs were fulfilled, respectively. Fifty (54%) articles (15 CC (30%) and 35 (78%) SCCS) adequately addressed the specificities of the case-only analyses in the way they reported results.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:

Our systematic review underlines that implementation of CC and SCCS designs needs to be more rigorous with regard to validity assumptions, as well as improvement in results reporting.

PMID:
23166668
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3500300
Free PMC Article
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