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Nat Rev Genet. 2013 Jan;14(1):1-2. doi: 10.1038/nrg3382. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

The nature of confounding in genome-wide association studies.

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  • 1Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


The authors argue that population structure per se is not a problem in genome-wide association studies - the true sources are the environment and the genetic background, and the latter is greatly underappreciated. They conclude that mixed models effectively address this issue.

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