Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Oncoimmunology. 2012 Sep 1;1(6):917-923.

TLR3/TICAM-1 signaling in tumor cell RIP3-dependent necroptosis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology; Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine; Sapporo, Japan.


The engagement of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) leads to the oligomerization of the adaptor TICAM-1 (TRIF), which can induces either of three acute cellular responses, namely, cell survival coupled to Type I interferon production, or cell death, via apoptosis or necrosis. The specific response elicited by TLR3 determines the fate of affected cells, although the switching mechanism between the two cell death pathways in TLR3-stimulated cells remains molecularly unknown. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-mediated cell death can proceed via apoptosis or via a non-apoptotic pathway, termed necroptosis or programmed necrosis, which have been described in detail. Interestingly, death domain-containing kinases called receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPs) are involved in the signaling pathways leading to these two cell death pathways. Formation of the RIP1/RIP3 complex (called necrosome) in the absence of caspase 8 activity is crucial for the induction of necroptosis in response to TNFα signaling. On the other hand, RIP1 is known to interact with the C-terminal domain of TICAM-1 and to modulate TLR3 signaling. In macrophages and perhaps tumor cell lines, RIP1/RIP3-mediated necroptotic cell death can ensue the administration of the TLR agonist polyI:C. If this involved the TLR3/TICAM-1 pathway, the innate sensing of viral dsRNA would be linked to cytopathic effects and to persistent inflammation, in turn favoring the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the microenvironment. Here, we review accumulating evidence pointing to the involvement of the TLR3/TICAM-1 axis in tumor cell necroptosis and the subsequent release of DAMPs.

Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk