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Urology. 2013 Jan;81(1):30-5. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2012.07.097. Epub 2012 Nov 13.

Knowledge and attitude of European urology residents about ionizing radiation.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Dicle University, Medical Faculty, Diyarbakir, Turkey.



To evaluate the attitude and knowledge of urology residents concerning ionizing radiation, we undertook a survey of European urology residents.


The questionnaire was sent to 1184 urology residents within the database of the European Society of Residents in Urology (ESRU) by e-mail between November 2011 and January 2012. The questionnaire was composed of demographic questions and questions about the frequency of radiation exposure and use of radiation safety measures during fluoroscopy-guided endourologic procedures. In addition, there were questions about education programs and respondents' knowledge about diagnostic imaging modalities.


A total of 124 questionnaires were returned from urology residents in 20 different European countries. All of the respondents reported that they were routinely exposed to ionizing radiation, and 69 (72.5%) were exposed more than 3 times per week. Despite the common but not sufficient use of lead aprons (75%), use of other radiation protection measures was very low. Although 55% of the respondents had attended an education program in Europe about radiation safety, attendance was highest in Poland (82.6%). The level of knowledge about ionizing radiation was low among urology residents, and approximately half of responders had no idea that commonly used imaging modalities have a fatal cancer risk.


The results of this study showed the lack of knowledge and awareness about the importance of ionizing radiation protection among urology residents in Europe. We therefore suggest radiation safety courses in every step of medical life for doctors, especially for endourologists.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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