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J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2013 Mar;23(3):211-5. doi: 10.1089/lap.2012.0303. Epub 2012 Nov 14.

Laparoscopic choledocholithotomy with rigid nephroscope.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, MLB Medical College, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India.



Apart from the required expertise, a major deterrent to laparoscopic common bile duct (CBD) lithotomy (LCDL) remains the relatively prohibitive cost of the flexible choledochoscope, and it also has a shortcoming of not being effective in removal of large impacted CBD stones.


All patients presenting with CBD stones were treated, without exclusion, by laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus transdochal LCDL after relevant investigations. LCDL was performed using a rigid nephroscope. The CBD was closed either with running 3-0 polyglactin acid (Vicryl; Ethicon) sutures without a stent or around a T tube in a few patients. Perioperative parameters were recorded in all patients.


Transdochal LCDL was performed on 172 consecutive patients. Five patients had a prior open cholecystectomy, 26 patients presented with acute cholecystitis, 5 patients presented with mild acute pancreatitis, and 12 patients presented after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Twenty-eight (16.28%) patients had multiple stones, 2 had biliary sludge, and no stone was found in 3 patients. Stone size varied from 4 to 12 mm. The average operative time was 68 minutes (range, 45-127 minutes). Primary repair was performed with 3-0 Vicryl continuous sutures, and the T tube was left in place in 13 (7.56%) patients. Conversion to an open procedure was required in 8 patients (4.65%). Postoperatively, mild acute pancreatitis occurred in 1 patient, and biliary peritonitis occurred in 5 patients.


Rigid scope transdochal LCDL is feasible, probably easier, better for impacted large CBD stones, and definitely more affordable.

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