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Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2013 Mar-Apr;31(2):295-301. Epub 2012 Oct 30.

Endothelial function and arterial stiffness assessment as early surrogate markers of vascular risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

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  • 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Heart Center Singapore, Singapore. cchin03m@gmail.com


Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at risk of premature atherosclerosis. Conventional prediction risk equations do not adequately predict the cardiovascular risk of these patients because of the complex interaction of traditional and SLE specific risk factors and treatment effects, as well as, the dynamic insult to the vasculature. Non-invasive vascular assessment is able to evaluate the vascular damage accumulated over time. The aim of this review is to examine the role of non-invasive assessment of endothelial function and arterial stiffness as surrogate markers for vascular risk in SLE patients.

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