Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Plant Physiol. 2013 Jan;161(1):440-54. doi: 10.1104/pp.112.207308. Epub 2012 Oct 25.

Group III-A XTH genes of Arabidopsis encode predominant xyloglucan endohydrolases that are dispensable for normal growth.

Author information

  • 1Division of Glycoscience, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Centre, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

The molecular basis of primary wall extension endures as one of the central enigmas in plant cell morphogenesis. Classical cell wall models suggest that xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase activity is the primary catalyst (together with expansins) of controlled cell wall loosening through the transient cleavage and religation of xyloglucan-cellulose cross links. The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains 33 phylogenetically diverse XYLOGLUCAN ENDO-TRANSGLYCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE (XTH) gene products, two of which were predicted to be predominant xyloglucan endohydrolases due to clustering into group III-A. Enzyme kinetic analysis of recombinant AtXTH31 confirmed this prediction and indicated that this enzyme had similar catalytic properties to the nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) xyloglucanase1 responsible for storage xyloglucan hydrolysis during germination. Global analysis of Genevestigator data indicated that AtXTH31 and the paralogous AtXTH32 were abundantly expressed in expanding tissues. Microscopy analysis, utilizing the resorufin β-glycoside of the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXG as an in situ probe, indicated significant xyloglucan endohydrolase activity in specific regions of both roots and hypocotyls, in good correlation with transcriptomic data. Moreover, this hydrolytic activity was essentially completely eliminated in AtXTH31/AtXTH32 double knockout lines. However, single and double knockout lines, as well as individual overexpressing lines, of AtXTH31 and AtXTH32 did not demonstrate significant growth or developmental phenotypes. These results suggest that although xyloglucan polysaccharide hydrolysis occurs in parallel with primary wall expansion, morphological effects are subtle or may be compensated by other mechanisms. We hypothesize that there is likely to be an interplay between these xyloglucan endohydrolases and recently discovered apoplastic exo-glycosidases in the hydrolytic modification of matrix xyloglucans.

PMID:
23104861
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3532273
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk