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ISRN Neurol. 2012;2012:701950. doi: 10.5402/2012/701950. Epub 2012 Oct 14.

Innate immune regulation by toll-like receptors in the brain.

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  • 1Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 432, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.


The innate immune system plays an important role in cerebral health and disease. In recent years the role of innate immune regulation by toll-like receptors in the brain has been highlighted. In this paper the expression of toll-like receptors and endogenous toll-like receptor ligands in the brain and their role in cerebral ischemia will be discussed. Further, the ability of systemic toll-like receptor ligands to induce cerebral inflammation will be reviewed. Finally, the capacity of toll-like receptors to both increase (sensitization) and decrease (preconditioning/tolerance) the vulnerability of the brain to damage will be disclosed. Studies investigating the role of toll-like receptors in the developing brain will be emphasized.

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