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Nurs Sci Q. 2012 Oct;25(4):318-24. doi: 10.1177/0894318412457059.

A medieval metaphor to aid use of the Neuman systems model in simulation debriefing.

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  • 1Infection Prevention and Control Quality Management, Grand Junction VA Medical Center, Grand Junction, CO, USA.


Patient simulation is an effective clinical nursing experience and debriefing is recognized as the most crucial phase for students to internalize learning. The Neuman systems model is an excellent organizing framework for simulation debriefing to maximize learning. However, due to the model's complexity, metaphor may be useful to help students to link simulation events with the model's concepts. A medieval metaphorical adaptation of the Neuman systems model was created as an educational debriefing tool to help students bridge this gap. Neuman's concepts are represented as medieval figures encountering and dealing with stressor dragons, with assistance (nursing intervention) as necessary. The companion questionnaire allows recording of student insights and becomes an evaluation tool for student comprehension.

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