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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Jan;79(1):159-67. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02655-12. Epub 2012 Oct 19.

Gray mold populations in german strawberry fields are resistant to multiple fungicides and dominated by a novel clade closely related to Botrytis cinerea.

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  • 1Department of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Abstract

The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. Strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against Botrytis per season. Gray mold isolates from several German strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. Fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. A stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype MDR1, called MDR1h, was found to be widely distributed, conferring increased partial resistance to two important botryticides, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. A 3-bp deletion mutation in a transcription factor-encoding gene, mrr1, was found to be correlated with MDR1h. All MDR1h isolates and the majority of isolates with resistance to multiple fungicides were found to be genetically distinct. Multiple-gene sequencing confirmed that they belong to a novel clade, called Botrytis group S, which is closely related to B. cinerea and the host-specific species B. fabae. Isolates of Botrytis group S genotypes were found to be widespread in all German strawberry-growing regions but almost absent from vineyards. Our data indicate a clear subdivision of gray mold populations, which are differentially distributed according to their host preference and adaptation to chemical treatments.

PMID:
23087030
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3536109
Free PMC Article
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