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Ultraschall Med. 2012 Oct;33(5):431-40. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1299482. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

Fetal face: the whole picture.

Author information

  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital of S. Joao, Porto Medical Faculty, Portugal. carolina_andresen@hotmail.com

Abstract

The fetal face is an essential source of information. Its evaluation makes it possible to diagnose several fetal diseases and syndromes. Three-dimensional ultrasound and four-dimensional ultrasound facilitate the evaluation of superficial anatomical facial structures and have become essential complementary tools to two-dimensional ultrasound, providing additional and more precise information about the presence and severity of facial defects. This article reviews the normal facial development essential to understand the pathogenesis of facial malformations as well as the assessment of a normal and dysmorphic face with two-dimensional, three-dimensional and four-dimensional ultrasound and discusses the clinical implications of detecting facial anomalies in the prenatal period.

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

PMID:
23070931
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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