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J Infect Dis. 2012 Dec 1;206(11):1695-705. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis553. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Highly active antiretroviral therapy and adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women in Botswana.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It is unknown whether adverse birth outcomes are associated with maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in pregnancy, particularly in resource-limited settings.

METHODS:

We abstracted obstetrical records at 6 sites in Botswana for 24 months. Outcomes included stillbirths (SBs), preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age (SGA), and neonatal death (NND). Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women, comparisons were limited to HAART exposure status at conception, and those with similar opportunities for outcomes. Comparisons were adjusted for CD4(+) lymphocyte cell count.

RESULTS:

Of 33,148 women, 32,113 (97%) were tested for HIV, of whom 9504 (30%) were HIV infected. Maternal HIV was significantly associated with SB, PTD, SGA, and NND. Compared with all other HIV-infected women, those continuing HAART from before pregnancy had higher odds of PTD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1, 1.4), SGA (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6, 2.1) and SB (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.8). Among women initiating antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, HAART use (vs zidovudine) was associated with higher odds of PTD (AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.8), SGA (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.9), and SB (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6, 3.9). Low CD4(+) was independently associated with SB and SGA, and maternal hypertension during pregnancy with PTD, SGA, and SB.

CONCLUSIONS:

HAART receipt during pregnancy was associated with increased PTD, SGA, and SB.

PMID:
23066160
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3488194
Free PMC Article
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