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Int Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb;33(1):95-7. doi: 10.1007/s10792-012-9636-z. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

Racemose hemangioma type 2: the first case report from the Middle East.

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  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Retinal arteriovenous malformations are rare and most are reported to be asymptomatic. We report an 11-year-old boy who attended for blunt trauma to his eye. The first ophthalmologic examination was performed in Nikookari Hospital Eye Emergency Room. Visual acuity was 20/20 and relative afferent pupillary defect was negative in both eyes. Ophthalmoscopic examination revealed multiple massive dilated retinal vessels in the superior arcade of the right eye. The arteriovenous malformation was not associated with exudation, hemorrhage or abnormal pigmentation. The left eye examination was unremarkable. We performed fluorescein angiography and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the right eye fluorescein angiography, the malformation was not associated with leak or edema. The left eye fluorescein angiography was unremarkable. Brain MRI was unremarkable. After 16 months follow-up, there were no symptoms. This is the first case report from the Middle East region. To the best of our knowledge, retinal arteriovenous malformation has rarely been reported in children. Previously published literature suggests that these malformations may become complicated in time. Brain MRI is strongly recommended because of the possibility of Wyburn-Mason syndrome.

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