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Nanoscale. 2012 Nov 21;4(22):7031-7. doi: 10.1039/c2nr32169f.

Patterned growth of tungsten oxide and tungsten oxynitride nanorods from Au-coated W foil.

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  • 1College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK.


This manuscript first describes a simple synthesis of tungsten oxide (WO(x)) nanorods from templated W foil using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique at 600-750 °C, then presents the formation of tungsten oxynitride (WO(x)N(y)) nanorods via nitridation at 650 °C for different reaction times. The W foil, blade engraved, acid etched, or spin coated with Au-block copolymer composites then plasma etched, was used as a substrate for the nanorod growth. The Au patterns that were created on the surface of a W foil following the removal of the copolymer, led to a reverse patterned growth of WO(x) nanorods on the Au free areas. Consequently, following the oxide-to-nitride conversion, WO(x)N(y) nanorods were obtained with an identical patterned feature as to that of the parental WO(x). Combined techniques including XRD, SEM, TEM and Raman were used to visualise and analyse the resulting WO(x) and WO(x)N(y) nanorods. The diameter, length, and chemical composition of the nanorods are found to vary with reaction time and temperatures, as well as different substrate pre-treatments. This result represents a simple, innovative and efficient process for reverse-patterned growth of new nanomaterials.

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