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J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2012 Sep;12(3 Suppl):20-8. doi: 10.1016/S1532-3382(12)70006-4.

State of the science: chronic periodontitis and systemic health.

Author information

  • 1UCLA School of Dentistry, Department of Periodontics, Faculty, Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90017-4002, USA. joan@corgels.com

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Inflammatory periodontal diseases exhibit an association with multiple systemic conditions. Currently, there is a lack of consensus among experts on the nature of these associations and confusion among health care providers and the public on how to interpret this rapidly growing body of science. This article overviews the current evidence linking periodontal diseases to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, preterm low birth weight babies, respiratory diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:

Evidence was taken from systematic reviews, clinical trials, and mechanistic studies retrieved in searches of the PubMed electronic database. The available data provide the basis for applied practical clinical recommendations.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:

Evidence is summarized and critically reviewed from systematic reviews, primary clinical trials, and mechanistic studies

CONCLUSIONS:

Surrogate markers for chronic periodontitis, such as tooth loss, show relatively consistent but weak associations with multiple systemic conditions. Despite biological plausibility, shorter-term interventional trials have generally not supported unambiguous cause-and-effect relationships. Nevertheless, the effective treatment of periodontal infections is important to achieve oral health goals, as well as to reduce the systemic risks of chronic local inflammation and bacteremias. Inflammatory periodontal diseases exhibit an association with multiple systemic conditions. With pregnancy as a possible exception, the local and systemic effects of periodontal infections and inflammation are usually exerted for many years, typically among those who are middle-aged or older. It follows that numerous epidemiological associations linking chronic periodontitis to age-associated and biologically complex conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, certain cancers, erectile dysfunction, kidney disease and dementia, have been reported. In the coming years, it seems likely that additional associations will be reported, despite adjustments for known genetic, behavioral and environmental confounders. Determining cause-and-effect mechanisms is more complicated, especially in circumstances where systemic effects may be subtle. Currently, however, there is a lack of consensus among experts on the nature of these associations and confusion among health care providers and the public on how to interpret this rapidly growing body of science. This article overviews the current evidence linking periodontal diseases to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, preterm/low birth weight babies, respiratory diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
23040337
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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