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J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 16;287(47):39391-401. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.416214. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

Functional compensation between cholecystokinin-1 and -2 receptors in murine paraventricular nucleus neurons.

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  • 1Graduate School of Innovative Life Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama-city, Toyama 930-8555, Japan.


Cholecystokinin (CCK) and its receptor subtypes CCK-1 and -2 have diverse homeostatic functions. CCK-1 and -2 receptors share a common phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, yet little is known regarding their possible functional coupling. We focused on CCK-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVN) cells, which control satiety and other autonomic functions. Analysis of mouse hypothalamic slices demonstrated that the general CCK receptor agonist CCK-8s (10 nM) triggered Ca(2+) transients most significantly in the posterior subregion of the PVN (PaPo). This 10 nM CCK-8s-induced response was absent in CCK-1 receptor knock-out (CCK1R(-/-)) slices, showing that the response is mediated by CCK-1 receptors. CCK-8s concentrations higher than 30 nM triggered a Ca(2+) rise similarly in wild-type and CCK1R(-/-) slices. The large CCK-8s (100 nM)-induced Ca(2+) responses in CCK1R(-/-) slices were blocked by a CCK-2 receptor antagonist (CI-988), whereas those in wild-type slices required a mixture of CI-988 and lorglumide (a CCK-1 receptor antagonist) for complete antagonism. Therefore, CCK-1 and -2 receptors may function synergistically in single PaPo neurons and deletion of CCK-1 receptors may facilitate CCK-2 receptor signaling. This hypothesis was supported by results of real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence double labeling and Western blotting assays, which indicated CCK-2 receptor overexpression in PaPo neurons of CCK1R(-/-) mice. Furthermore, behavioral studies showed that intraperitoneal injections of lorglumide up-regulated food accesses in wild-type but not in CCK1R(-/-) mice, whereas CI-988 injections up-regulated food accesses in CCK1R(-/-) but not in wild-type mice. Compensatory CCK signaling via CCK-2 receptors in CCK1R(-/-) mice shed light on currently controversial satiety-controlling mechanisms.

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