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PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45596. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045596. Epub 2012 Sep 21.

Src homology-2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP) 2 and p38 regulate the expression of chemokine CXCL8 in human astrocytes.

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  • 1Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Abstract

CXCL8, one of the first chemokines found in the brain, is upregulated in the brains and cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-1 infected individuals suggesting its potential role in human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuroinflammation. Astrocytes are known to be the major contributors to the CXCL8 pool. Interleukin (IL)-1β activated astrocytes exhibit significant upregulation of CXCL8. In order to determine the signaling pathways involved in CXCL8 regulation in astrocytes, we employed pharmacological inhibitors for non-receptor Src homology-2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP) 2 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway and observed reduced expression of CXCL8 following IL-1β stimulation. Overexpression of SHP2 and p38 enzymes in astrocytes led to elevated CXCL8 expression; however, inactivating SHP2 and p38 with dominant negative mutants abrogated CXCL8 induction. Furthermore, SHP2 overexpression resulted in higher SHP2 and p38 enzyme activity whereas p38 overexpression resulted in higher p38 but not SHP2 enzyme activity. Phosphorylation of SHP2 was important for phosphorylation of p38, which in turn was critical for phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Thus, our findings suggest an important role for SHP2 in CXCL8 expression in astrocytes during inflammation, as SHP2, directly or indirectly, modulates p38 and ERK MAPK in the signaling cascade leading to CXCL8 production. This study provides detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in CXCL8 production during neuroinflammation.

PMID:
23029125
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3448633
Free PMC Article
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