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CMAJ. 1990 Feb 1;142(3):221-7.

Effects of physical activity, dietary calcium intake and selected lifestyle factors on bone density in young women.

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  • 1College of Physical Education, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.


To assess the possible effects of physical activity, calcium intake and lifestyle factors on bone density, we measured the calcaneal bone density of 101 healthy female volunteers aged 20 to 35 years. Information was obtained through questionnaires and 1-week and 2-week recall tests. There appeared to be no relation between height, weight or age and bone density in the study sample. Childhood milk consumption, current dietary calcium intake, level of avocational physical activity and lifestyle variables such as cigarette smoking and coffee consumption, considered separately, did not reach statistically significant levels as determinants of bone density. Childhood physical activity level appeared to have a significant positive effect on bone density.

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