Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Vis. 2012 Sep 25;12(10):12. doi: 10.1167/12.10.12.

A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size.

Author information

  • 1NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA.


The size of the pupil has a large effect on visual function, and pupil size depends mainly on the adapting luminance, modulated by other factors. Over the last century, a number of formulas have been proposed to describe this dependence. Here we review seven published formulas and develop a new unified formula that incorporates the effects of luminance, size of the adapting field, age of the observer, and whether one or both eyes are adapted. We provide interactive demonstrations and software implementations of the unified formula.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk