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Pediatr Radiol. 2012 Oct;42(10):1275-83. doi: 10.1007/s00247-012-2436-9. Epub 2012 Sep 22.

ESPR Uroradiology Task Force and ESUR Paediatric Working Group--Imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part V: childhood cystic kidney disease, childhood renal transplantation and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in children.

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  • 1Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, 8036, Graz, Austria. michael.riccabona@klinikum-graz.at


The ESPR Uroradiology Task Force and the ESUR Paediatric Working Group present two new recommendations on imaging in childhood cystic kidney disease and in childhood renal transplantation, and address the presently restricted availability of contrast-enhanced (ce) US in children. New insights into the genetics require an updated classification of paediatric cystic kidney disease along with a new concept of diagnostic imaging. Characteristic imaging features are key to the new classification. Available recommendations for imaging renal transplantation in children are not satisfactory. The following consensus-based algorithm proposes a more effective and more uniform imaging concept, reducing invasiveness, enhancing diagnostic accuracy, and facilitating future multicentre studies and meta-analysis. At present, ce-US in children can only be performed off-license, since the only approved US contrast agent (CA) for children has been taken off the market. Nevertheless, paediatric ce-US is practiced at multiple places using Sonovue (Bracco, Milan, Italy), a generally available agent in Europe. From a medical and scientific perspective, paediatric ce-US should be promoted, and efforts are undertaken to collect data on paediatric US-CA applications. Routine paediatric imaging depends on local expertise and availability of equipment. The imaging recommendations and supportive data are intended to ease the physicians' difficult task of dealing with the specific diagnostic demands of paediatric paediatric cystic kidney disease and transplantation.

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