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Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e928-35. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3120. Epub 2012 Sep 17.

A new liquid human milk fortifier and linear growth in preterm infants.

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  • 1Coastal Carolina Neonatology, Wilmington, North Carolina, USA.



To evaluate the growth, tolerance, and safety of a new ultraconcentrated liquid human milk fortifier (LHMF) designed to provide optimal nutrients for preterm infants receiving human breast milk in a safe, nonpowder formulation.


Preterm infants with a body weight ≤ 1250 g fed expressed and/or donor breast milk were randomized to receive a control powder human milk fortifier (HMF) or a new LHMF for 28 days. When added to breast milk, the LHMF provided ∼20% more protein than the control HMF. Weight, length, head circumference, and serum prealbumin, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, electrolytes, and blood gases were measured. The occurrence of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and serious adverse events were monitored.


This multicenter, third party-blinded, randomized controlled, prospective study enrolled 150 infants. Achieved weight and linear growth rate were significantly higher in the LHMF versus control groups (P = .04 and 0.03, respectively). Among infants who adhered closely to the protocol, the LHMF had a significantly higher achieved weight, length, head circumference, and linear growth rate than the control HMF (P = .004, P = .003, P = .04, and P = .01, respectively). There were no differences in measures of feeding tolerance or days to achieve full feeding volumes. Prealbumin, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen were higher in the LHMF group versus the control group (all P < .05). There was no difference in the incidence of confirmed sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis.


Use of a new LHMF in preterm infants instead of powder HMF is safe. Benefits of LHMF include improvements in growth and avoidance of the use of powder products in the NICU.

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