Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e42992. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042992. Epub 2012 Sep 4.

Overexpression of karyopherin 2 in human ovarian malignant germ cell tumor correlates with poor prognosis.

Author information

  • 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.



The aim of this study was to identify a biomarker useful in the diagnosis and therapy of ovarian malignant germ cell tumor (OMGCT).


The karyopherin 2 (KPNA2) expression in OMGCT and normal ovarian tissue was determined by standard gene microarray assays, and further validated by a quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The correlation between KPNA2 expression in OMGCT and certain clinicopathological features were analyzed. Expression of SALL4, a stem cell marker, was also examined in comparison with KPNA2.


KPNA2 was found to be over-expressed by approximately eight-fold in yolk sac tumors and immature teratomas compared to normal ovarian tissue by microarray assays. Overexpression was detected in yolk sac tumors, immature teratomas, dysgerminomas, embryonal carcinomas, mature teratomas with malignant transformation and mixed ovarian germ cell tumors at both the transcription and translation levels. A positive correlation between KPNA2 and SALL4 expression at both the transcription level (R = 0.5120, P = 0.0125), and the translation level (R = 0.6636, P<0.0001), was presented. Extensive expression of KPNA2 was positively associated with pathologic type, recurrence and uncontrolled, ascitic fluid presence, suboptimal cytoreductive surgery necessity, resistance/refraction to initial chemotherapy, HCG level and SALL4 level in OMGCT patients. KPNA2 was found to be an independent factor for 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of OMGCT (P = 0.02). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and DFS rate for KPNA2-low expression patients (88% and 79%, n = 48) were significantly higher than the OS and DFS rate for KPNA2-high expression patients (69% and 57.1%, n = 42)(P = 0.0151, P = 0.0109, respectively). The 5-year OS and DFS rate for SALL4-low expression patients (84% and 74%, n = 62) was marginally significantly higher than the high expression patients (78.6% and 71.4%, n = 28)(P = 0.0519, P = 0.0647, respectively).


KPNA2 is a potential candidate molecular marker and important prognostic marker in OMGCT patients.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk