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Nature. 2012 Sep 6;489(7414):57-74. doi: 10.1038/nature11247.

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.

Collaborators (594)

Dunham I, Kundaje A, Aldred SF, Collins PJ, Davis CA, Doyle F, Epstein CB, Frietze S, Harrow J, Kaul R, Khatun J, Lajoie BR, Landt SG, Lee BK, Pauli F, Rosenbloom KR, Sabo P, Safi A, Sanyal A, Shoresh N, Simon JM, Song L, Trinklein ND, Altshuler RC, Birney E, Brown JB, Cheng C, Djebali S, Dong X, Dunham I, Ernst J, Furey TS, Gerstein M, Giardine B, Greven M, Hardison RC, Harris RS, Herrero J, Hoffman MM, Iyer S, Kellis M, Khatun J, Kheradpour P, Kundaje A, Lassmann T, Li Q, Lin X, Marinov GK, Merkel A, Mortazavi A, Parker SC, Reddy TE, Rozowsky J, Schlesinger F, Thurman RE, Wang J, Ward LD, Whitfield TW, Wilder SP, Wu W, Xi HS, Yip KY, Zhuang J, Pazin MJ, Lowdon RF, Dillon LA, Adams LB, Kelly CJ, Zhang J, Wexler JR, Green ED, Good PJ, Feingold EA, Bernstein BE, Birney E, Crawford GE, Dekker J, Elnitski L, Farnham PJ, Gerstein M, Giddings MC, Gingeras TR, Green ED, Guigó R, Hardison RC, Hubbard TJ, Kellis M, Kent W, Lieb JD, Margulies EH, Myers RM, Snyder M, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Tenenbaum SA, Weng Z, White KP, Wold B, Khatun J, Yu Y, Wrobel J, Risk BA, Gunawardena HP, Kuiper HC, Maier CW, Xie L, Chen X, Giddings MC, Bernstein BE, Epstein CB, Shoresh N, Ernst J, Kheradpour P, Mikkelsen TS, Gillespie S, Goren A, Ram O, Zhang X, Wang L, Issner R, Coyne MJ, Durham T, Ku M, Truong T, Ward LD, Altshuler RC, Eaton ML, Kellis M, Djebali S, Davis CA, Merkel A, Dobin A, Lassmann T, Mortazavi A, Tanzer A, Lagarde J, Lin W, Schlesinger F, Xue C, Marinov GK, Khatun J, Williams BA, Zaleski C, Rozowsky J, Röder M, Kokocinski F, Abdelhamid RF, Alioto T, Antoshechkin I, Baer MT, Batut P, Bell I, Bell K, Chakrabortty S, Chen X, Chrast J, Curado J, Derrien T, Drenkow J, Dumais E, Dumais J, Duttagupta R, Fastuca M, Fejes-Toth K, Ferreira P, Foissac S, Fullwood MJ, Gao H, Gonzalez D, Gordon A, Gunawardena HP, Howald C, Jha S, Johnson R, Kapranov P, King B, Kingswood C, Li G, Luo OJ, Park E, Preall JB, Presaud K, Ribeca P, Risk BA, Robyr D, Ruan X, Sammeth M, Sandhu KS, Schaeffer L, See LH, Shahab A, Skancke J, Suzuki AM, Takahashi H, Tilgner H, Trout D, Walters N, Wang H, Wrobel J, Yu Y, Hayashizaki Y, Harrow J, Gerstein M, Hubbard TJ, Reymond A, Antonarakis SE, Hannon GJ, Giddings MC, Ruan Y, Wold B, Carninci P, Guigó R, Gingeras TR, Rosenbloom KR, Sloan CA, Learned K, Malladi VS, Wong MC, Barber GP, Cline MS, Dreszer TR, Heitner SG, Karolchik D, Kent W, Kirkup VM, Meyer LR, Long JC, Maddren M, Raney BJ, Furey TS, Song L, Grasfeder LL, Giresi PG, Lee BK, Battenhouse A, Sheffield NC, Simon JM, Showers KA, Safi A, London D, Bhinge AA, Shestak C, Schaner MR, Kim SK, Zhang ZZ, Mieczkowski PA, Mieczkowska JO, Liu Z, McDaniell RM, Ni Y, Rashid NU, Kim MJ, Adar S, Zhang Z, Wang T, Winter D, Keefe D, Birney E, Iyer VR, Lieb JD, Crawford GE, Li G, Sandhu KS, Zheng M, Wang P, Luo OJ, Shahab A, Fullwood MJ, Ruan X, Ruan Y, Myers RM, Pauli F, Williams BA, Gertz J, Marinov GK, Reddy TE, Vielmetter J, Partridge E, Trout D, Varley KE, Gasper C, Bansal A, Pepke S, Jain P, Amrhein H, Bowling KM, Anaya M, Cross MK, King B, Muratet MA, Antoshechkin I, Newberry KM, McCue K, Nesmith AS, Fisher-Aylor KI, Pusey B, DeSalvo G, Parker SL, Balasubramanian S, Davis NS, Meadows SK, Eggleston T, Gunter C, Newberry J, Levy SE, Absher DM, Mortazavi A, Wong WH, Wold B, Blow MJ, Visel A, Pennachio LA, Elnitski L, Margulies EH, Parker SC, Petrykowska HM, Abyzov A, Aken B, Barrell D, Barson G, Berry A, Bignell A, Boychenko V, Bussotti G, Chrast J, Davidson C, Derrien T, Despacio-Reyes G, Diekhans M, Ezkurdia I, Frankish A, Gilbert J, Gonzalez JM, Griffiths E, Harte R, Hendrix DA, Howald C, Hunt T, Jungreis I, Kay M, Khurana E, Kokocinski F, Leng J, Lin MF, Loveland J, Lu Z, Manthravadi D, Mariotti M, Mudge J, Mukherjee G, Notredame C, Pei B, Rodriguez JM, Saunders G, Sboner A, Searle S, Sisu C, Snow C, Steward C, Tanzer A, Tapanari E, Tress ML, van Baren MJ, Walters N, Washietl S, Wilming L, Zadissa A, Zhang Z, Brent M, Haussler D, Kellis M, Valencia A, Gerstein M, Reymond A, Guigó R, Harrow J, Hubbard TJ, Landt SG, Frietze S, Abyzov A, Addleman N, Alexander RP, Auerbach RK, Balasubramanian S, Bettinger K, Bhardwaj N, Boyle AP, Cao AR, Cayting P, Charos A, Cheng Y, Cheng C, Eastman C, Euskirchen G, Fleming JD, Grubert F, Habegger L, Hariharan M, Harmanci A, Iyengar S, Jin VX, Karczewski KJ, Kasowski M, Lacroute P, Lam H, Lamarre-Vincent N, Leng J, Lian J, Lindahl-Allen M, Min R, Miotto B, Monahan H, Moqtaderi Z, Mu XJ, O'Geen H, Ouyang Z, Patacsil D, Pei B, Raha D, Ramirez L, Reed B, Rozowsky J, Sboner A, Shi M, Sisu C, Slifer T, Witt H, Wu L, Xu X, Yan KK, Yang X, Yip KY, Zhang Z, Struhl K, Weissman SM, Gerstein M, Farnham PJ, Snyder M, Tenenbaum SA, Penalva LO, Doyle F, Karmakar S, Landt SG, Bhanvadia RR, Choudhury A, Domanus M, Ma L, Moran J, Patacsil D, Slifer T, Victorsen A, Yang X, Snyder M, Auer T, Centanin L, Eichenlaub M, Gruhl F, Heermann S, Hoeckendorf B, Inoue D, Kellner T, Kirchmaier S, Mueller C, Reinhardt R, Schertel L, Schneider S, Sinn R, Wittbrodt B, Wittbrodt J, Weng Z, Whitfield TW, Wang J, Collins PJ, Aldred SF, Trinklein ND, Partridge EC, Myers RM, Dekker J, Jain G, Lajoie BR, Sanyal A, Balasundaram G, Bates DL, Byron R, Canfield TK, Diegel MJ, Dunn D, Ebersol AK, Frum T, Garg K, Gist E, Hansen R, Boatman L, Haugen E, Humbert R, Jain G, Johnson AK, Johnson EM, Kutyavin TV, Lajoie BR, Lee K, Lotakis D, Maurano MT, Neph SJ, Neri FV, Nguyen ED, Qu H, Reynolds AP, Roach V, Rynes E, Sabo P, Sanchez ME, Sandstrom RS, Sanyal A, Shafer AO, Stergachis AB, Thomas S, Thurman RE, Vernot B, Vierstra J, Vong S, Wang H, Weaver MA, Yan Y, Zhang M, Akey JM, Bender M, Dorschner MO, Groudine M, MacCoss MJ, Navas P, Stamatoyannopoulos G, Kaul R, Dekker J, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Dunham I, Beal K, Brazma A, Flicek P, Herrero J, Johnson N, Keefe D, Lukk M, Luscombe NM, Sobral D, Vaquerizas JM, Wilder SP, Batzoglou S, Sidow A, Hussami N, Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou S, Libbrecht MW, Schaub MA, Kundaje A, Hardison RC, Miller W, Giardine B, Harris RS, Wu W, Bickel PJ, Banfai B, Boley NP, Brown JB, Huang H, Li Q, Li JJ, Noble WS, Bilmes JA, Buske OJ, Hoffman MM, Sahu AD, Kharchenko PV, Park PJ, Baker D, Taylor J, Weng Z, Iyer S, Dong X, Greven M, Lin X, Wang J, Xi HS, Zhuang J, Gerstein M, Alexander RP, Balasubramanian S, Cheng C, Harmanci A, Lochovsky L, Min R, Mu XJ, Rozowsky J, Yan KK, Yip KY, Birney E.

Abstract

The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research.

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PMID:
22955616
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3439153
Free PMC Article

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