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Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(7):8696-721. doi: 10.3390/ijms13078696. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

Multiple mechanisms and challenges for the application of allopolyploidy in plants.

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  • 1Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Plant Industry, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; E-Mails: kenji.osabe@csiro.au (K.O.); liz.dennis@csiro.au (E.S.D.).


An allopolyploid is an individual having two or more complete sets of chromosomes derived from different species. Generation of allopolyploids might be rare because of the need to overcome limitations such as co-existing populations of parental lines, overcoming hybrid incompatibility, gametic non-reduction, and the requirement for chromosome doubling. However, allopolyploids are widely observed among plant species, so allopolyploids have succeeded in overcoming these limitations and may have a selective advantage. As techniques for making allopolyploids are developed, we can compare transcription, genome organization, and epigenetic modifications between synthesized allopolyploids and their direct parental lines or between several generations of allopolyploids. It has been suggested that divergence of transcription caused either genetically or epigenetically, which can contribute to plant phenotype, is important for the adaptation of allopolyploids.


allopolyploid; cytoplasmic male sterility; epigenetics; reproductive barrier; self-compatibility

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