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J Chem Ecol. 2012 Aug;38(8):1036-41. doi: 10.1007/s10886-012-0167-x. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

Analyzing diurnal and age-related pheromone emission of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae by sequential SPME-GCMS analysis.

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  • 1Institute of Plant Protection, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50250, Israel.


The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), uses 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane ("olean"), produced primarily by females, as a sex pheromone. We used sequential solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS) analysis to show that female olive flies release about 1000 ng of pheromone at the onset of scotophase for several weeks, while males release about 1/100 as much during the first week after eclosion. The present research demonstrates details of employing SPME-GCMS with the partially known pheromone system of the olive fruit fly as a model for pheromone identification and diurnal release patterns in insects, especially fruit flies. The sequential SPME-GCMS method will readily allow detection and semi-quantification of semiochemicals released by insects in minute amounts throughout the diurnal cycle.

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