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Patient Educ Couns. 2012 Nov;89(2):292-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2012.08.009. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Measuring the degree of closeness to the cancer experience: development and initial validation of the CONNection to the Experience of Cancer Scale (CONNECS).

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  • 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.



To describe the development and psychometric testing of items measuring connection to the cancer experience through a close friend or relative.


Ten items assess four aspects of connection to cancer: emotional and cognitive involvement, kind and amount of shared experience, perceived similarity to the affected person, and negative change witnessed. Interviews were conducted with 2200 women close to someone with cancer. The sample was split into two samples for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Sample 1 (n=1342) was used to examine the underlying structure of the items. Sample 2 (n=858) was used for CFA. Internal consistency and reliability analysis were also conducted.


Three factors with moderate correlation were extracted: general closeness, resemblance, and cognitive processing. Results from the CFA analysis confirmed a good fit of the three-factor model (Bentler-Bonett NIF=0.973, Bentler-Bonett NNFI=0.975, RMSEA=0.040 and CFI=0.984) and all path coefficients were statistically significant.


Findings provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and construct validity of the CONNECS scale in measuring individuals' connection to the cancer experience through a close friend or relative.


CONNECS may be a useful tool for examining the impact of the cancer experience on risk perceptions, cancer worry, and medical decision making.

Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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