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Public Health Nutr. 2013 Oct;16(10):1837-42. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012004016. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Foods contributing to sodium intake and urinary sodium excretion in a group of Australian women.

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  • 1School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.



To identify food sources of Na in a group of community-dwelling women in Adelaide, South Australia. A secondary aim was to measure Na excretion in this group.




Community setting, Adelaide, South Australia.


Seventy healthy women (mean age 48.6 (SD 8.1) years, mean BMI 28.6 (SD 6.3) kg/m2) living in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia and participating in a validation study of an FFQ. Dietary intake was derived from two 4 d weighed food records. Foods from the 4 d weighed food records were grouped according to foods or food groups to establish contributors to Na intake. Na excretion was measured in two 24 h urine samples. Completeness of urine collections was verified using creatinine excretion.


Bread alone contributed 19.0% of Na intake, with an overall contribution from the breads and cereals group of 32.5%. Meat products contributed 14.4% of intake, the dairy and eggs group (excluding cheese) 9.6% and combination dishes (e.g. pizza, quiche, sandwiches and stir fry dishes) 8.4%. Na excretion was 126 (SD 42) mmol/d, i.e. approximately 7.6 (SD 2.5) g salt/d. Seventy per cent of participants (n 48) had Na excretion ≥100 mmol/d (146 (SD 34) mmol/d).


Effective Na reduction could be achieved by reducing the amount in staple foods such as bread and meat products.

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