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Orv Hetil. 2012 Sep 2;153(35):1370-9. doi: 10.1556/OH.2012.29436.

[Physiological and pathophysiological role of the circadian clock system].

[Article in Hungarian]

Author information

  • 1Mazsihisz Szeretetkórház Metabolikus Ambulancia Budapest Amerikai út 53-55. 1145. fishwash@t-online.hu

Abstract

It has been well known for ages that in living organisms the rhythmicity of biological processes is linked to the ~ 24-hour light-dark cycle. However, the exact function of the circadian clock system has been explored only in the past decades. It came to light that the photosensitive primary "master clock" is situated in the suprachiasmatic photosensitive nuclei of the special hypothalamic region, and that it is working according to ~24-hour changes of light and darkness. The master clock sends its messages to the peripheral "slave clocks". In many organs, like pancreatic β-cells, the slave clocks have autonomic functions as well. Two essential components of the clock system are proteins encoded by the CLOCK and BMAL1 genes. CLOCK genes are in interaction with endonuclear receptors such as peroxisoma-proliferator activated receptors and Rev-erb-α, as well as with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, regulating the adaptation to stressors, energy supply, metabolic processes and cardiovascular system. Melatonin, the product of corpus pineale has a significant role in the functions of the clock system. The detailed discovery of the clock system has changed our previous knowledge about the development of many diseases. The most explored fields are hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic processes, mental disorders, cancers, sleep apnoe and joint disorders. CLOCK genes influence ageing as well. The recognition of the periodicity of biological processes makes the optimal dosing of certain drugs feasible. The more detailed discovery of the interaction of the clock system might further improve treatment and prevention of many disorders.

PMID:
22935429
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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