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Public Health Nutr. 2012 Dec;15(12):2175-84. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012003898. Epub 2012 Aug 29.

Beverage consumption patterns of Canadian adults aged 19 to 65 years.

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  • 1Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.



To investigate the beverage intake patterns of Canadian adults and explore characteristics of participants in different beverage clusters.


Analyses of nationally representative data with cross-sectional complex stratified design.


Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004).


A total of 14 277 participants aged 19-65 years, in whom dietary intake was assessed using a single 24 h recall, were included in the study. After determining total intake and the contribution of beverages to total energy intake among age/sex groups, cluster analysis (K-means method) was used to classify males and females into distinct clusters based on the dominant pattern of beverage intakes. To test differences across clusters, χ2 tests and 95 % confidence intervals of the mean intakes were used.


Six beverage clusters in women and seven beverage clusters in men were identified. 'Sugar-sweetened' beverage clusters - regular soft drinks and fruit drinks - as well as a 'beer' cluster, appeared for both men and women. No 'milk' cluster appeared among women. The mean consumption of the dominant beverage in each cluster was higher among men than women. The 'soft drink' cluster in men had the lowest proportion of the higher levels of education, and in women the highest proportion of inactivity, compared with other beverage clusters.


Patterns of beverage intake in Canadian women indicate high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly fruit drinks, low intake of milk and high intake of beer. These patterns in women have implications for poor bone health, risk of obesity and other morbidities.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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