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Sci Rep. 2012;2:606. doi: 10.1038/srep00606. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Control of adaptive immune responses by Staphylococcus aureus through IL-10, PD-L1, and TLR2.

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  • 1Laboratory of Immunology, Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research , Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


Microbes induce innate immune responses in hosts. It is critical to know how different microbes control adaptive responses through innate pathways. The impact of gram-positive bacteria on the innate and adaptive responses is unclear. Herein we report that Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-10, Th17-inducing cytokines IL-6 and IL-23, chemokines, and regulates dendritic cell markers. S. aureus inhibits T-cell IL-2 responses through modulation of HLA-DR, CD86 and PD-L1. IFN-gamma, Src kinase inhibitors, or TLR2 antibodies prevented the down-modulation of HLA-DR by S. aureus. Our data demonstrate that innate TLR signaling induces multi-dimensional inhibition of adaptive immune responses, which may contribute to the lack of protective immunity to bacteria or microbe tolerance. IL-10 and PD-L1 antagonists may boost immunity to vaccines for S. aureus and other microbes.

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