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Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012 Dec;39(12):1977-95. doi: 10.1007/s00259-012-2215-8. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

EANM 2012 guidelines for radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

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  • 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, La Timone University Hospital, CERIMED, Aix-Marseille University, France.



Radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) involves various functional imaging techniques and approaches for accurate diagnosis, staging and tumour characterization. The purpose of the present guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in performing, interpreting and reporting the results of the currently available SPECT and PET imaging approaches. These guidelines are intended to present information specifically adapted to European practice.


Guidelines from related fields, issued by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine and the Society of Nuclear Medicine, were taken into consideration and are partially integrated within this text. The same was applied to the relevant literature, and the final result was discussed with leading experts involved in the management of patients with PCC/PGL. The information provided should be viewed in the context of local conditions, laws and regulations.


Although several radionuclide imaging modalities are considered herein, considerable focus is given to PET imaging which offers high sensitivity targeted molecular imaging approaches.

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