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Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2012 Sep;19(5):324-32. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2012.06.003.

The rationale and evidence base for the direct removal of serum-free light chains in the management of myeloma kidney.

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  • 1Department of Renal Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. paul.cockwell@uhb.nhs.uk

Abstract

Myeloma kidney (cast nephropathy) causing severe acute kidney injury occurs in up to 10% of patients with multiple myeloma. The lesion is caused by exposure of the kidneys to high serum levels of free clonal immunoglobulin light chains (LCs) and is associated with very high morbidity and mortality. The current focus on the management of this complication is on early and aggressive treatment to rapidly reduce the serum levels of the immunoglobulin LC clone and protect the kidneys from continuing injury. This has promoted intense interest in the role of direct (extracorporeal) removal of free LCs from serum by plasma exchange or high cut-off (protein permeable) hemodialysis. However, it remains uncertain whether direct removal provides an additional measurable clinical benefit over the current standard of care; rapid institution of treatment with a dexamethasone- and bortezomib-based chemotherapy regime. In this article, we review the rationale for direct removal of free LCs and the current clinical evidence base for plasma exchange and high cut-off hemodialysis.

Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
22920643
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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