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Chest. 2013 Jan;143(1):152-7.

Bacterial bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypable Haemophilus influenzae in children: the impact of vaccination.

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  • 1Third Department of Paediatrics, University General Hospital Attikon, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Protracted bacterial bronchitis is a major cause of persistent cough in childhood. The organisms most commonly isolated are nontypable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae . There are no studies addressing typing of these organisms when recovered from the lower airways.

METHODS:

Isolates of these two organisms (identified in BAL samples from children undergoing routine investigation of a chronic cough thought to be attributable to a protracted bacterial bronchitis) were subject to typing. Samples were collected in Sheffield, England, and Athens, Greece. The majority of the children from Sheffield had received pneumococcal-conjugate vaccines 7 or 13 (PCV-7 or PCV-13) conjugate vaccine but only a minority of Greek children had received PCV-7.

RESULTS:

All 18 S pneumoniae isolates from Greek BAL samples are serotypes contained in PCV-13 while 10 are contained in PCV-7. In contrast, 28 of the 39 samples from Sheffield contained serotypes that are not included in PCV-13. All 26 of the nontypable H influenzae samples obtained in Sheffield produced distinct multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis profiles. There was a significant difference between children from Athens and Sheffield in the distribution of serotypes contained or not contained in the pneumococcal vaccine ( P = .04). More specifically, immunization with pneumococcal vaccine was related with isolation of S pneumoniae serotypes not included in the vaccine (OR, 0.021; CI, 0.003-0.115; P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

The data suggest that both vaccine and nonvaccine S pneumoniae serotypes may play a role in protracted bacterial bronchitis and provide some hints that serotype replacement may occur in response to the introduction of conjugate vaccines.

PMID:
22911476
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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