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J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1990 Nov;31(7):1089-102.

Oppositional disorder in children: a validation study comparing conduct disorder, oppositional disorder and normal control children.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Subjects with oppositional disorder (OD, N = 21) and conduct disorder (CD, N = 22) were compared with normal controls (NC, N = 20) to determine whether OD is a distinct disorder. OD subjects exhibited high rates of associated attention deficit, emotional and learning disorders. Compared with NC, OD subjects had high rates of problems in social relationships and came from families characterized by marital fights, dysfunction, and paternal psychopathology. Compared with CD, OD was less often characterized by undersocialization and separations from fathers and more often characterized by dissatisfaction in the marital relationship. These results suggest that OD is a variant of CD rather than of normality.

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