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Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Oct 1;18(19):5427-37. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0214. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

Exploratory clinical trial of (4S)-4-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-L-glutamate for imaging xC- transporter using positron emission tomography in patients with non-small cell lung or breast cancer.

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  • 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



(4S)-4-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl)-l-glutamate (BAY 94-9392, alias [(18)F]FSPG) is a new tracer to image x(C)(-) transporter activity with positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to explore the tumor detection rate of [(18)F]FSPG in patients relative to 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG). The correlation of [(18)F]FSPG uptake with immunohistochemical expression of x(C)(-) transporter and CD44, which stabilizes the xCT subunit of system x(C)(-), was also analyzed.


Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, n = 10) or breast cancer (n = 5) who had a positive [(18)F]FDG uptake were included in this exploratory study. PET images were acquired following injection of approximately 300 MBq [(18)F]FSPG. Immunohistochemistry was done using xCT- and CD44-specific antibody.


[(18)F]FSPG PET showed high uptake in the kidney and pancreas with rapid blood clearance. [(18)F]FSPG identified all 10 NSCLC and three of the five breast cancer lesions that were confirmed by pathology. [(18)F]FSPG detected 59 of 67 (88%) [(18)F]FDG lesions in NSCLC, and 30 of 73 (41%) in breast cancer. Seven lesions were additionally detected only on [(18)F]FSPG in NSCLC. The tumor-to-blood pool standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio was not significantly different from that of [(18)F]FDG in NSCLC; however, in breast cancer, it was significantly lower (P < 0.05). The maximum SUV of [(18)F]FSPG correlated significantly with the intensity of immunohistochemical staining of x(C)(-) transporter and CD44 (P < 0.01).


[(18)F]FSPG seems to be a promising tracer with a relatively high cancer detection rate in patients with NSCLC. [(18)F]FSPG PET may assess x(C)(-) transporter activity in patients with cancer.

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