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Methods Mol Biol. 2012;911:431-43. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-968-6_26.

Affinity maturation of single-domain antibodies by yeast surface display.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.


Although single-domain antibodies derived from libraries prepared either after animal immunization or naïve animals generally exhibit reasonable affinity, it is often desirable to further improve their affinity. This chapter describes protocols for improving the affinity of single-domain antibodies using quantitative library sorting by yeast surface display. An example is included where we also exploit a complementary strength of phage display in generating larger sequence diversity prior to library sorting with yeast surface display.

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