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Methods Mol Biol. 2012;911:27-36. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-968-6_3.

Overview and discovery of IgNARs and generation of VNARs.

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  • 1CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Parkville, VIC, Australia.


Immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNARs) from sharks are a distinct class of immune receptors, consisting of homodimers with no associated light chains. Antigen binding is encapsulated within single VNAR immunoglobulin domains of 13-14 kDa in size. This small size and single domain format means that they exhibit considerable stability and are readily produced in heterologous protein expression systems. In this chapter, I describe the history and discovery of IgNARs, the development of VNAR biotechnology, and highlight important factors in VNAR protein production.

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