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Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2012 Aug;20(3):413-34. doi: 10.1016/j.mric.2012.05.005. Epub 2012 Jun 28.

Evaluation of orbital disorders and cranial nerve innervation of the extraocular muscles.

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  • 1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 702 Barnhill Drive, Room 1053, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.


A wide range of orbital disorders, including an orbital mass, infection, inflammation, systemic disease, or intracranial lesions, may be encountered with imaging. Evaluation of orbital disorders requires the combination of accurate and relevant clinical information with an understanding of anatomy and pathologic processes. An imaging approach to an orbital differential diagnosis includes assessment for alteration of a normal orbital structure, a lesion that does not belong in the orbit, or alteration of the orbit from bone or periorbital disorders. This approach, combined with key elements of clinical history, leads to a narrower differential diagnosis and improved patient care.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

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