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Curr Urol Rep. 2012 Oct;13(5):356-62. doi: 10.1007/s11934-012-0267-8.

Evaluation and management of outlet obstruction in women without anatomical abnormalities on physical exam or cystoscopy.

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  • 1Department of Urology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.


Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women can be either anatomic or functional. Anatomic causes for BOO are often readily apparent by history and physical exam. On the other hand, causes for functional obstruction, including dysfunctional voiding, primary bladder neck obstruction, and detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, are more difficult to establish. Because the appropriate treatment for functional obstruction drastically varies according to etiology, making an accurate diagnosis is paramount. Videourodynamics, interpreted in the context of individual clinical symptoms, remains the diagnostic gold standard in women with functional obstruction.

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