Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Evid Based Med. 2013 Jun;18(3):98-103. doi: 10.1136/eb-2012-100607. Epub 2012 Aug 4.

What effect does breastfeeding have on coeliac disease? A systematic review update.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.



To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review and meta-analysis that compared the effect of breastfeeding on risk of coeliac disease (CD).


A systematic review of observational studies published between 1966 and May 2004 on the subject was conducted in 2005. This update is a systematic review of observational studies published between June 2004 and April 2011. Pubmed, EMBASE and Cinahl were searched for published studies that examined the association between breastfeeding and CD.


After duplicates were removed 90 citations were screened. Four observational studies were included in the review. Two of three studies which had examined the duration of breastfeeding and CD reported significant associations between longer duration of breastfeeding and later onset of CD (OR ranged from 0.18 to 0.665). Breastfeeding during the introduction of gluten to the infant was reported to have a protective effect in two studies.


Our findings support previous published findings that breastfeeding seems to offer a protection against the development of CD in predisposed infants. Breastfeeding at time of gluten introduction is the most significant variable in reducing the risk. Timing of gluten introduction may also be a factor in the development of CD.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk