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PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42091. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042091. Epub 2012 Jul 27.

Higher rates of Clostridium difficile infection among smokers.

Author information

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America. maryroge@umich.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Cigarette smoking has been shown to be related to inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated whether smoking affected the probability of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).

METHODS:

We conducted a longitudinal study of 16,781 older individuals from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. Data were linked to files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

RESULTS:

Overall, the rate of CDI in older individuals was 220.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 193.3, 248.0). Rates of CDI were 281.6/100,000 person-years in current smokers, 229.0/100,000 in former smokers and 189.1/100,000 person-years in never smokers. The odds of CDI were 33% greater in former smokers (95% CI: 8%, 65%) and 80% greater in current smokers (95% CI: 33%, 145%) when compared to never smokers. When the number of CDI-related visits was evaluated, current smokers had a 75% increased rate of CDI compared to never smokers (95% CI: 15%, 167%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Smoking is associated with developing a Clostridium difficile infection. Current smokers have the highest risk, followed by former smokers, when compared to rates of infection in never smokers.

PMID:
22848714
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3407081
Free PMC Article
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