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Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep;23(5):377-83. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e32835720e2.

Visual processing and learning disorders.

Author information

  • 1Wills Eye Institute, Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismus, and Genetics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. cyanderman@verizon.net



Many children are seen by ophthalmologists because of scholastic difficulties in school initially attributed to eyesight when, in fact, the problem often is a result of a disorder of the brain processing vision. A number of neuropsychological conditions predisposing and affecting children with learning disorders will be described. Visual processing is the main brain function allowing normal perception of what is being viewed. Ophthalmologists as well as patients must realize that with normal 20/20 eyesight interpretation of what is seen may be dysfunctional because of faulty brain processing of that which is seen by normal eyes. Abnormal Visual Processing as well as auditory processing disorders eventually lead directly to learning disorders in children and young adults.


New Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD)/attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) have been established by the American Academy of Pediatrics. An overgrowth of neurons in the prefrontal cortex of children with autism has recently been discovered. Six out of 1000 children have been reported as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), which is another name for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A number of alternative treatments for ASD have recently been published. The families of autistic children have increased emotional and financial burdens, often affecting the workplace.


Recent neuropsychology discoveries have helped in the prevention, evaluation and treatment of children with visual processing and learning disorders. Quality-of-life and educational efficiency therefore can be improved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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