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Environ Pollut. 2012 Nov;170:202-10. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.06.014. Epub 2012 Jul 24.

Physiological responses of lichens to factorial fumigations with nitric acid and ozone.

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  • 1Arizona State University, School of Life Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.


This paper addresses the effects of gaseous nitric acid (HNO(3)) and ozone (O(3)), two important air pollutants, on six lichen species with different morphological, ecological, and biological characteristics. The treatment chambers were set up in a factorial design consisting of control chambers, chambers fumigated with HNO(3), with O(3), and with HNO(3) and O(3), together. Each species showed a different sensitivity to the fumigations, reflecting the physiological variation among species. Our results clearly indicate that HNO(3) is a strong phytotoxin to many lichens, and that O(3) alone has little effect on the measured parameters. The combined fumigation effects of HNO(3) and O(3) were not significantly different from HNO(3) alone.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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