Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40745. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040745. Epub 2012 Jul 19.

Cell recruitment and cytokines in skin mice sensitized with the vaccine adjuvants: saponin, incomplete Freund's adjuvant, and monophosphoryl lipid A.

Author information

  • 1Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil.


Vaccine adjuvants are substances associated with antigens that are fundamental to the formation of an intense, durable, and fast immune response. In this context, the use of vaccine adjuvants to generate an effective cellular immune response is crucial for the design and development of vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate innate inflammatory response induced by the vaccine adjuvants saponin (SAP), incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). After a single dose of adjuvant was injected into the skin of mice, we analyzed inflammatory reaction, selective cell migration, and cytokine production at the injection site, and inflammatory cell influx in the peripheral blood. We found that all vaccine adjuvants were able to promote cell recruitment to the site without tissue damage. In addition, they induced selective migration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The influx of neutrophils was notable at 12 h in all groups, but at other time points it was most evident after inoculation with SAP. With regard to cytokines, the SAP led to production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-4. IFA promoted production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-10. We also observed that MPL induced high production of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, in addition to IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10. In peripheral blood, values of certain cell populations in the local response changed after stimulation. Our data demonstrate that the three vaccine adjuvants stimulate the early events of innate immune response at the injection site, suggesting their ability to increase the immunogenicity of co-administered antigens. Moreover, this work provides relevant information about elements of innate and acquired immune response induced by vaccine adjuvants administered alone.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk