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J Chromatogr A. 2012 Dec 7;1267:102-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.06.086. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

A nonlinear electrophoretic model for PeakMaster: part III. Electromigration dispersion in systems that contain a neutral complex-forming agent and a fully charged analyte. Theory.

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  • 1Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, Prague, Czech Republic.


We introduce a new nonlinear electrophoretic model for complex-forming systems with a fully charged analyte and a neutral ligand. The background electrolyte is supposed to be composed of two constituents, which do not interact with the ligand. In order to characterize the electromigration dispersion (EMD) of the analyte zone we define a new parameter, the nonlinear electromigration mobility slope, S(EMD,A). The parameter can be easily utilized for quantitative prediction of the EMD and for comparisons of the model with the simulated and experimental profiles. We implemented the model to the new version of PeakMaster 5.3 Complex that can calculate some characteristic parameters of the electrophoretic system and can plot the dependence of S(EMD,A) on the concentration of the ligand. Besides S(EMD,A), also the relative velocity slope, S(X), can be calculated. It is commonly used as a measure of EMD in electrophoretic systems. PeakMaster 5.3 Complex software can be advantageously used for optimization of the separation conditions to avoid high EMD in complexing systems. Based on the theoretical model we analyze the S(EMD,A) and reveal that this parameter is composed of six terms. We show that the major factor responsible for the electromigration dispersion in complex-forming electrophoretic systems is the complexation equilibrium and particularly its impact on the effective mobility of the analyte. To prove the appropriateness of the model we showed that there is a very good agreement between peak shapes calculated by PeakMaster 5.3 Complex (plotted using the HVLR function) and the profiles simulated by means of Simul 5 Complex. The detailed experimental verification of the new mode of PeakMaster 5.3 Complex is in the next part IV of the series.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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