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Nephron Extra. 2012 Jan;2(1):192-204. doi: 10.1159/000339786. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Increased Prevalence and Severity of Coronary Artery Calcification in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage III and IV.

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  • 1Departments of Internal Medicine - Nephrology, University Hospital of Patras, Patras, Greece.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in CKD is multifactorial including, in addition to traditional risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus), parameters related to uremia.

METHODS:

The study consisted of measuring coronary artery calcification (CAC) score in patients with CKD stage III and IV without history of CVD and in a group of controls with normal renal function matched for age, gender and risk factors using multi-detector computed tomography.

RESULTS:

The study included 49 patients and 49 controls. CAC was present in 79.6% in the CKD group versus 59.2% in the control group (p = 0.028). The median CAC score value in CKD patients was 139 (interquartile range (IQR): 23-321) versus 61 (IQR: 6-205) in controls (p = 0.007). CAC was associated with traditional risk factors such as older age, hypertension and baseline cardiovascular risk score, while CKD patients with severe calcification had marginally lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and increased levels of parathormone.

CONCLUSIONS:

CAC is more frequent and severe in patients with CKD stage III and IV compared to matched controls with normal renal function, even though kidney disease-related parameters are not directly correlated with intensity of calcification.

KEYWORDS:

Agatston score; Chronic kidney disease; Coronary artery calcification; Framingham risk score; Multi-detector computed tomography; Parathormone

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