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Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Feb;82(1):15-26. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000090.

Carotenoids and vitamins C and E in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

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  • 1Cardiology Unit, San Camillo De Lellis Hospital, Manfredonia, Foggia, Italy. griccioni@hotmail.com


Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major source of mortality and morbidity in the general population. Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) represents the most important determinant factor in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidative damage and the production of free radicals (FRs) in the endothelium are some of the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic process that causes CVD. Appropriate nutritional practices are of central importance in managing risk and treatment of CVD; in fact, many current guidelines for a healthy general population contain nutritional recommendations to reduce the risk of these diseases. Observational studies of vitamins C and E, the most prevalent natural antioxidant vitamins, suggest that supplemental use of these vitamins may lower the risk for coronary events. Despite these data, several large, randomized controlled trials have failed to confirm the benefits of vitamin C and E in cardiovascular prevention. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies regarding the effect of vitamins (C and E) and beta-carotene supplementation in the prevention of CVD due to atherosclerosis.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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