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Dent Mater. 2012 Oct;28(10):1059-70. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2012 Jul 17.

Calcium phosphate cement with biofunctional agents and stem cell seeding for dental and craniofacial bone repair.

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  • 1Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering Division, Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.



Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) can be injected to harden in situ and is promising for dental and craniofacial applications. However, human stem cell attachment to CPC is relatively poor. The objectives of this study were to incorporate biofunctional agents into CPC, and to investigate human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) seeding on biofunctionalized CPC for osteogenic differentiation for the first time.


Five types of biofunctional agents were used: RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides, human fibronectin (Fn), fibronectin-like engineered polymer protein (FEPP), extracellular matrix Geltrex, and human platelet concentrate. Five biofunctionalized CPC scaffolds were fabricated: CPC-RGD, CPC-Fn, CPC-FEPP, CPC-Geltrex, and CPC-Platelets. The hUCMSC attachment, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineral synthesis were measured.


The hUCMSCs on biofunctionalized CPCs had much better cell attachment, proliferation, actin fiber expression, osteogenic differentiation and mineral synthesis, compared to the traditional CPC control. Cell proliferation was increased by an order of magnitude via incorporation of biofunctional agents in CPC (p<0.05). Mineral synthesis on biofunctionalized CPCs was 3-5 folds of those of control (p<0.05). hUCMSCs differentiated with high alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, osteocalcin, and collagen I gene expressions. Mechanical properties of biofunctionalized CPC matched the reported strength and elastic modulus of cancellous bone.


A new class of biofunctionalized CPCs was developed, including CPC-RGD, CPC-Fn, CPC-FEPP, CPC-Geltrex, and CPC-Platelets. hUCMSCs on biofunctionalized CPCs had cell density, cell proliferation, actin fiber density, and bone mineralization that were dramatically better than those on traditional CPC. Novel biofunctionalized CPC scaffolds with greatly enhanced human stem cell proliferation and differentiation are promising to facilitate bone regeneration in a wide range of dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications.

Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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