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Nanotechnology. 2012 Aug 10;23(31):315602. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/23/31/315602. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

Structure and electrochemical applications of boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers.

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  • 1Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan.

Abstract

Boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by optimizing CNFs preparation, surface treatment, graphitization and boron-added graphitization. The interlayer spacing (d₀₀₂) of the boron-doped graphitized CNFs reached 3.356 Å, similar to that of single-crystal graphite. Special platelet CNFs (PCNFs), for which d₀₀₂ is less than 3.400 Å, were selected for further heat treatment. The first heat treatment of PCNFs at 2800 °C yielded a d₀₀₂ between 3.357 and 3.365 Å. Successive nitric acid treatment and a second heat treatment with boric acid reduced d₀₀₂ to 3.356 Å. The resulting boron-doped PCNFs exhibited a high discharge capacity of 338 mAh g⁻¹ between 0 and 0.5 V versus Li/Li⁺ and 368 mAh g⁻¹ between 0 and 1.5 V versus Li/Li⁺. The first-cycle Coulombic efficiency was also enhanced to 71-80%. Such capacity is comparable to that of natural graphite under the same charge/discharge conditions. The boron-doped PCNFs also exhibited improved rate performance with twice the capacity of boron-doped natural graphite at a discharge rate of 5 C.

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